ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Artificial intelligence is also known as MACHINE INTELLIGENCE

History of Artificial Intelligence:

If a human could not distinguish between responses from a machine and a human, the machine could be considered intelligent.

The AI was first introduced in 1956 at a workshop at “DARTMOUTH college”.
→Allen Newell, Herbert A. Simon , John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky and Arthur Samuel were the founder of AI.
The first work that is now generally recognized as AI was McCulloch and Pitt’s 1943 formal design for Turing-complete “artificial neurons“. In 1960 it was used for “Department of defense”.

 

WHAT IS AI??

AI is a combination of a human intelligence and machine processing. i.e, human intelligence process by machines.This process consist of learning,recognizing,reasoning, self detector.

  • Artificial intelligence is a way of making a computer to think as a intelligent human think.
  • It is a relation between a machine and a human brain.
  • The started with the development of AI intention of creating similar intelligence in machines that we find and regard high in humans.
  • It is a source of intelligence which has the knowledge of following subjects.

 

APPROACHES:

  • Cybernetics and brain simulation:

→A number of researchers explored the connection between neurobiologyinformation theory

John McCarthy felt that machines did not need to simulate human thought, but should instead

try to find the essence of abstract reasoning and problem solving, regardless of whether people

used the same algorithms

  • Computational intelligence and soft computing:                                                                                               →They are solutions to problems which cannot be solved with complete logical certainty,   and where an approximate solution is often sufficient. Other soft computing approaches  to AI include fuzzy systems, evolutionary computation and many statistical tools.

APPLICATIONS:

  • Used in gaming.
  • Recognizing voice, eyes, writing etc.
  • Used in computer applications
  • Used in department of defense
  • There are many more applications of AI in the real world.

PHILOSOPHY OF AI:

There are three philosophy of AI, they are

  1. Can a machine solve any problem that a human being can solve using intelligence?
  2. Are intelligent machines dangerous?
  3. Can a machine have a mind, consciousness and mental states in exactly the same sense that human beings do?

LIMITATIONS OF AI:

  1. According to Dartmouth proposal “Every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it.”
  2. According to The artificial brain argument, The brain can be simulated by machines and because brains are intelligent, simulated brains must also be intelligent; thus machines can be intelligent.
  • The AI effect Machines are already intelligent, but observers have failed to recognize it.

 

 

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